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Atomic electrostatic maps of 1D channels in 2D semiconductors using 4D scanning transmission electron microscopy

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08904-9 DOI Help

Authors: Shiang Fang (Harvard University) , Yi Wen (University of Oxford) , Christopher Allen (Diamond Light Source; University of Oxford) , Colin Ophus (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) , Grace G. D. Han (Brandeis University) , Angus I. Kirkland (University of Oxford; Diamond Light Source) , Efthimios Kaxiras (Harvard University) , Jamie H. Warner (University of Oxford)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Nature Communications , VOL 10

State: Published (Approved)
Published: March 2019
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 19045

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Defects in materials give rise to fluctuations in electrostatic fields that reflect the local charge density, but imaging this with single atom sensitivity is challenging. However, if possible, this provides information about the energetics of adatom binding, localized conduction channels, molecular functionality and their relationship to individual bonds. Here, ultrastable electron-optics are combined with a high-speed 2D electron detector to map electrostatic fields around individual atoms in 2D monolayers using 4D scanning transmission electron microscopy. Simultaneous imaging of the electric field, phase, annular dark field and the total charge in 2D MoS2 and WS2 is demonstrated for pristine areas and regions with 1D wires. The in-gap states in sulphur line vacancies cause 1D electron-rich channels that are mapped experimentally and confirmed using density functional theory calculations. We show how electrostatic fields are sensitive in defective areas to changes of atomic bonding and structural determination beyond conventional imaging.

Keywords: Electronic properties and materials; Materials chemistry; Structure of solids and liquids; Two-dimensional materials

Subject Areas: Materials, Physics

Diamond Offline Facilities: Electron Physical Sciences Imaging Centre (ePSIC)
Beamlines: E02-JEM ARM 300CF