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Quadruple stacking of macrocyclic viologen radical-cations

DOI: 10.1080/10610278.2017.1375113 DOI Help

Authors: Claire A. Murray (University of Reading) , Zhixue Zhu (University of Reading) , Christine J. Cardin (University of Reading) , Howard M. Colquhoun (University of Reading) , Barnaby Greenland (University of Reading)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Supramolecular Chemistry , VOL 30 , PAGES 751 - 757

State: Published (Approved)
Published: September 2017

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: The solid state structures of the di-cationic (1a) and radical mono-cationic (1b) redox forms of a 4,4′-bipyridinium (viologen) containing macrocycle have been established by single crystal X-ray analysis. Formation of the radical cation has a dramatic effect on the molecular structure of the macrocycle. Addition of an electron to 1a both decreases the diameter of the ring cavity (from 8.5 to 7.8 Å) and drastically flattens the torsion angle between the two pyridinium residues in the viologen, reducing it from 48° to either 3° or 9° (two independent molecules). Moreover, a close association of these near-planar radical cation units drives the formation of a tetrameric supramolecular structure in the solid state.

Journal Keywords: Viologen; macrocycle; radical cation; X-ray structure; π−π stacking

Subject Areas: Chemistry


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