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A novel laboratory-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system

DOI: 10.1063/1.5039829 DOI Help

Authors: Anna Regoutz (Imperial College London) , Manfred Mascheck (Scienta Omicron GmbH) , Tomas Wiell (Scienta Omicron AB) , Susanna K. Eriksson (Scienta Omicron AB) , Cristopher Liljenberg (Scienta Omicron AB) , Kornelius Tetzner (Imperial College London) , Benjamin A. D. Williamson (University College London) , David O. Scanlon (University College London; Diamond Light Source) , Paul Palmgren (Scienta Omicron AB)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Review Of Scientific Instruments , VOL 89

State: Published (Approved)
Published: July 2018

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has seen continuous development since the first experiments in the 1970s. HAXPES systems are predominantly located at synchrotron sources due to low photoionization cross sections necessitating high X-ray intensities, which limits the technique’s availability to a wide range of users and potential applications. Here, a new laboratory-based instrument capable of delivering monochromated X-rays with an energy of 9.25 keV and a microfocused 30 × 45 μm2 X-ray spot is introduced. The system gives an excellent energy resolution of below 500 meV coupled with good X-ray intensity. It allows stable measurements under grazing incidence conditions to maximise signal intensities. This article outlines the instrument behavior, showcases applications including bulk and multilayer measurements, and describes the overall performance of the spectrometer. This system presents an alternative to synchrotron-based experimental end stations and will help expand the number and range of HAXPES experiments performed in the future.

Journal Keywords: Synchrotrons; Monochromators; Oxides; Transistors; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Transition metal oxides; Chemical elements; Hard X-rays; Vacuum systems

Subject Areas: Technique Development

Technical Areas: