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Characterisation of sensor kinase by CD spectroscopy: golden rules and tips

DOI: 10.1042/BST20180222 DOI Help

Authors: Giuliano Siligardi (Diamond Light Source) , Charlotte S. Hughes (Diamond Light Source) , Rohanah Hussain (Diamond Light Source)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Biochemical Society Transactions , VOL 3

State: Published (Approved)
Published: December 2018
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 14484 , 8084 , 9786 , 10484

Abstract: This is a review that describes the golden rules and tips on how to characterise the molecular interactions of membrane sensor kinase proteins with ligands using mainly circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. CD spectroscopy is essential for this task as any conformational change observed in the far-UV (secondary structures (α-helix, β-strands, poly-proline of type II, β-turns, irregular and folding) and near-UV regions [local environment of the aromatic side-chains of amino acid residues (Phe, Tyr and Trp) and ligands (drugs) and prosthetic groups (porphyrins, cofactors and coenzymes (FMN, FAD, NAD))] upon ligand addition to the protein can be used to determine qualitatively and quantitatively ligand-binding interactions. Advantages of using CD versus other techniques will be discussed. The difference CD spectra of the protein–ligand mixtures calculated subtracting the spectra of the ligand at various molar ratios can be used to determine the type of conformational changes induced by the ligand in terms of the estimated content of the various elements of protein secondary structure. The highly collimated microbeam and high photon flux of Diamond Light Source B23 beamline for synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) enable the use of minimal amount of membrane proteins (7.5 µg for a 0.5 mg/ml solution) for high-throughput screening. Several examples of CD titrations of membrane proteins with a variety of ligands are described herein including the protocol tips that would guide the choice of the appropriate parameters to conduct these titrations by CD/SRCD in the best possible way.

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials, Technique Development

Instruments: B23-Circular Dichroism