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A hard x-ray photoemission study of transparent conducting fluorine-doped tin dioxide

DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547950 DOI Help

Authors: Jack E. N. Swallow (University of Liverpool) , Benjamin A. D. Williamson (University College London) , Max Birkett (University of Liverpool) , Alex Abbott (NSG Group) , Mark Farnworth (NSG Group) , Thomas J. Featherstone (University of Liverpool) , Nianhua Peng (University of Surrey) , J. Kieran Cheetham (University of Liverpool) , Paul Warren (NSG Group) , Anna Regoutz (Imperial College London) , David A. Duncan (Diamond Light Source) , Tien-lin Lee (Diamond Light Source) , David O. Scanlon (University College London) , R. Vin Dhanak (University of Liverpool) , Tim D. Veal (University of Liverpool)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Conference Paper
Conference: 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC)
Peer Reviewed: No

State: Published (Approved)
Published: November 2018

Abstract: Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is a commercially successful transparent conducting oxide with very good electrical (resistivities < 1 × 10 3 Ω⋅ cm) and optical properties (transmittance >85%). These properties coupled with cheap and large-scale deposition on float-glass lines means FTO has found commercial use in, for example, low emissivity windows and solar cells. However, despite its widespread application, a detailed understanding is lacking of the doping and defects in FTO. Recent work [1] has suggested that the fluorine interstitial plays a major role in limiting the conductivity of FTO. Here we present synchrotron radiation high energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) of the fluorine 1s core level of FTO films without in situ surface preparation. This probes deeper than standard XPS and shows that the fluorine interstitial is present not just at the surface of the films and is not an artefact of argon ion sputtering for surface preparation.

Journal Keywords: Fluorine-doped tin dioxide; SnO2; Transparent conducting oxides; HAXPES; Films; Surface cleaning; Ions; Photoelectricity; Pollution measurement; Plasmons

Subject Areas: Materials


Instruments: I09-Surface and Interface Structural Analysis