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Revealing internal flow behaviour in arc welding and additive manufacturing of metals

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07900-9 DOI Help

Authors: Lee Aucott (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) , Hongbiao Dong (University of Leicester) , Wajira Mirihanage (University of Manchester) , Robert Atwood (Diamond Light Source) , Anton Kidess (Delft University of Technology) , Shian Gao (University of Leicester) , Shuwen Wen (Tata Steel) , John Marsden (Tata Steel) , Shuo Feng (University of Leicester) , Mingming Tong (University College Dublin) , Thomas Connolley (Diamond Light Source) , Michael Drakopoulos (Diamond Light Source) , Chris R. Kleijn (Delft University of Technology) , Ian M. Richardson (Delft University of Technology) , David J. Browne (University College Dublin) , Ragnvald H. Mathiesen (The Norwegian University of Science and Technology) , Helen Atkinson (University of Leicester)
Co-authored by industrial partner: Yes

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Nature Communications , VOL 9

State: Published (Approved)
Published: December 2018
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 8218 , 7855

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Internal flow behaviour during melt-pool-based metal manufacturing remains unclear and hinders progression to process optimisation. In this contribution, we present direct timeresolved imaging of melt pool flow dynamics from a high-energy synchrotron radiation experiment. We track internal flow streams during arc welding of steel and measure instantaneous flow velocities ranging from 0.1ms−1 to 0.5ms−1. When the temperaturedependent surface tension coefficient is negative, bulk turbulence is the main flow mechanism and the critical velocity for surface turbulence is below the limits identified in previous theoretical studies. When the alloy exhibits a positive temperature-dependent surface tension coefficient, surface turbulence occurs and derisory oxides can be entrapped within the subsequent solid as result of higher flow velocities. The widely used arc welding and the emerging arc additive manufacturing routes can be optimised by controlling internal melt flow through adjusting surface active elements.

Journal Keywords: welding; imaging; additive manufacturing; flow

Subject Areas: Materials, Engineering, Technique Development

Instruments: I12-JEEP: Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing


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