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Diversity within the adenovirus fiber knob hypervariable loops influences primary receptor interactions

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08599-y DOI Help

Authors: Alexander T. Baker (Cardiff University) , Alexander Greenshields Watson (Cardiff University) , Lynda Coughlan (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai) , James A. Davies (Cardiff University) , Hanni Uusi-kerttula (Cardiff University) , David K. Cole (Cardiff University) , Pierre J. Rizkallah (Cardiff University) , Alan L. Parker (Cardiff University)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Nature Communications , VOL 10

State: Published (Approved)
Published: February 2019
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 14843

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Adenovirus based vectors are of increasing importance for wide ranging therapeutic applications. As vaccines, vectors derived from human adenovirus species D serotypes 26 and 48 (HAdV-D26/48) are demonstrating promising efficacy as protective platforms against infectious diseases. Significant clinical progress has been made, yet definitive studies underpinning mechanisms of entry, infection, and receptor usage are currently lacking. Here, we perform structural and biological analysis of the receptor binding fiber-knob protein of HAdV-D26/48, reporting crystal structures, and modelling putative interactions with two previously suggested attachment receptors, CD46 and Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR). We provide evidence of a low affinity interaction with CAR, with modelling suggesting affinity is attenuated through extended, semi-flexible loop structures, providing steric hindrance. Conversely, in silico and in vitro experiments are unable to provide evidence of interaction between HAdV-D26/48 fiber-knob with CD46, or with Desmoglein 2. Our findings provide insight into the cell-virus interactions of HAdV-D26/48, with important implications for the design and engineering of optimised Ad-based therapeutics.

Journal Keywords: Adenovirus; DNA vaccines; Virus–host interactions; X-ray crystallography

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials, Medicine

Instruments: I04-Macromolecular Crystallography