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Characterization of two putative Dichelobacter nodosus footrot vaccine antigens identifies the first lysozyme inhibitor in the genus

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-46506-z DOI Help

Authors: Maria Victoria Humbert (University of Southampton) , Alexandra Jackson (University of Southampton) , Christian M. Orr (Diamond Light Source) , Ivo Tews (University of Southampton) , Myron Christodoulides (University of Southampton)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Scientific Reports , VOL 9

State: Published (Approved)
Published: July 2019

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: The Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus (Dn) causes footrot in ruminants, a debilitating and highly contagious disease that results in necrotic hooves and significant economic losses in agriculture. Vaccination with crude whole-cell vaccine mixed with multiple recombinant fimbrial proteins can provide protection during species-specific outbreaks, but subunit vaccines containing broadly cross-protective antigens are desirable. We have investigated two D. nodosus candidate vaccine antigens. Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator Dn-MIP (DNO_0012, DNO_RS00050) and Adhesin Complex Protein Dn-ACP (DNO_0725, DNO_RS06795) are highly conserved amongst ~170 D. nodosus isolates in the https://pubmlst.org/dnodosus/ database. We describe the presence of two homologous ACP domains in Dn-ACP with potent C-type lysozyme inhibitor function, and homology of Dn-MIP to other putative cell-surface and membrane-anchored MIP virulence factors. Immunization of mice with recombinant proteins with a variety of adjuvants induced antibodies that recognised both proteins in D. nodosus. Notably, immunization with fimbrial-whole-cell Footvax vaccine induced anti-Dn-ACP and anti-Dn-MIP antibodies. Although all adjuvants induced high titre antibody responses, only antisera to rDn-ACP-QuilA and rDn-ACP-Al(OH)3 significantly prevented rDn-ACP protein from inhibiting lysozyme activity in vitro. Therefore, a vaccine incorporating rDn-ACP in particular could contribute to protection by enabling normal innate immune lysozyme function to aid bacterial clearance.

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