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Mechanistic studies of the palladium-catalyzed desulfinative cross-coupling of aryl bromides and (hetero)aryl sulfinate salts

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b13260 DOI Help

Authors: Antoine De Gombert (Chemistry Research Laboratories, University of Oxford) , Alasdair I. Mckay (Chemistry Research Laboratories, University of Oxford) , Christopher J. Davis (Vertex Pharmaceuticals (Europe), Ltd) , Katherine M. Wheelhouse (GSK Medicines Research Centre) , Michael C. Willis (Chemistry Research Laboratories, University of Oxford)
Co-authored by industrial partner: Yes

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Journal Of The American Chemical Society

State: Published (Approved)
Published: February 2020

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Pyridine and related heterocyclic sulfinates have recently emerged as effective nucleophilic coupling partners in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with (hetero)aryl halides. These sulfinate reagents are straightforward to prepare, stable to storage and coupling reaction conditions, and deliver efficient reactions, thus offering many advantages, compared to the corresponding boron-derived reagents. Despite the success of these reactions, there are only scant details of the reaction mechanism. In this study, we use structural and kinetic analysis to investigate the mechanism of these important coupling reactions in detail. We compare a pyridine-2-sulfinate with a carbocyclic sulfinate and establish different catalyst resting states, and turnover limiting steps, for the two classes of reagent. For the carbocyclic sulfinate, the aryl bromide oxidative addition complex is the resting state intermediate, and transmetalation is turnover-limiting. In contrast, for the pyridine sulfinate, a chelated Pd(II) sulfinate complex formed post-transmetalation is the resting-state intermediate, and loss of SO2 from this complex is turnover-limiting. We also investigated the role of the basic additive potassium carbonate, the use of which is crucial for efficient reactions, and deduced a dual function in which carbonate is responsible for the removal of free sulfur dioxide from the reaction medium, and the potassium cation plays a role in accelerating transmetalation. In addition, we show that sulfinate homocoupling is responsible for converting Pd(OAc)2 to a catalytically active Pd(0) complex. Together, these studies shed light on the challenges that must be overcome to deliver improved, lower temperature versions of these synthetically important processes.

Journal Keywords: Palladium; Salts; Transmetalation; Oxidative addition; Cross coupling reaction

Subject Areas: Chemistry

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