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Metal–organic frameworks as chemical nanoreactors: Synthesis and stabilization of catalytically active metal species in confined spaces

DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00609 DOI Help

Authors: Marta Viciano-chumillas (Universidad de Valencia) , Marta Mon Conejero (Universidad de Valencia) , Jesus Ferrando Soria (Universidad de Valencia) , Avelino Corma (Instituto de Tecnología Química (UPV-CSIC), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) , Antonio Leyva-pérez (Instituto de Tecnología Química (UPV-CSIC), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) , Donatella Armentano (Università della Calabria) , Emilio Pardo (Universidad de Valencia)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Accounts Of Chemical Research

State: Published (Approved)
Published: February 2020
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 18768

Abstract: Since the advent of the first metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), we have witnessed an explosion of captivating architectures with exciting physicochemical properties and applications in a wide range of fields. This, in part, can be understood under the light of their rich host–guest chemistry and the possibility to use single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) as a basic characterization tool. Moreover, chemistry on preformed MOFs, applying recent developments in template-directed synthesis and postsynthetic methodologies (PSMs), has shown to be a powerful synthetic tool to (i) tailor MOFs channels of known topology via single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) processes, (ii) impart higher degrees of complexity and heterogeneity within them, and most importantly, (iii) improve their capabilities toward applications with respect to the parent MOFs. However, the unique properties of MOFs have been, somehow, limited and underestimated. This is clearly reflected on the use of MOFs as chemical nanoreactors, which has been barely uncovered. In this Account, we bring together our recent advances on the construction of MOFs with appealing properties to act as chemical nanoreactors and be used to synthesize and stabilize, within their channels, catalytically active species that otherwise could be hardly accessible. First, through two relevant examples, we present the potential of the metalloligand approach to build highly robust and crystalline oxamato- and oxamidato-MOFs with tailored channels, in terms of size, charge and functionality. These are initial requisites to have a playground where we can develop and fully take advantage of singular properties of MOFs as well as visualize/understand the processes that take place within MOFs pores and somehow make structure–functionalities correlations and develop more performant MOFs nanoreactors. Then, we describe how to exploit the unique and singular features that offer each of these MOFs confined space for (i) the incorporation and stabilization of metals salts and complexes, (ii) the in situ stepwise synthesis of subnanometric metal clusters (SNMCs), and (iii) the confined-space self-assembly of supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs), by means of PSMs and underpinned by SC-XRD. The strategy outlined here has led to unique rewards such as the highly challenging gram-scale preparation of stable and well-defined ligand-free SNMCs, exhibiting outstanding catalytic activities, and the preparation of unique SCCs, different to those assembled in solution, with enhanced stabilities, catalytic activities, recyclabilities, and selectivities. The results presented in this Accounts are just a few recent examples, but highly encouraging, of the large potential way of MOFs acting as chemical nanoreactors. More work is needed to found the boundaries and fully understand the chemistry in the confined space. In this sense, mastering the synthetic chemistry of discrete organic molecules and inorganic complexes has basically changed our way of live. Thus, achieving the same degree of control on extended hybrid networks will open new frontiers of knowledge with unforeseen possibilities. We aim to stimulate the interest of researchers working in broadly different fields to fully unleash the host–guest chemistry in MOFs as chemical nanoreactors with exclusive functional species.

Journal Keywords: Palladium; Platinum; Metals; Gold; Metal organic frameworks

Subject Areas: Chemistry, Materials


Instruments: I19-Small Molecule Single Crystal Diffraction