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Correlative acoustic time-of-flight spectroscopy and X-ray imaging to investigate gas-induced delamination in lithium-ion pouch cells during thermal runaway

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228039 DOI Help

Authors: Martin T. M. Pham (University College London (UCL)) , John J. Darst (NASA Johnson Space Centre) , Donal P. Finegan (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) , James B. Robinson (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Thomas M. M. Heenan (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Matt D. R. Kok (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Francesco Iacoviello (University College London) , Rhodri Owen (University College London (UCL); The Faraday Institution) , William Q. Walker (NASA Johnson Space Centre) , Oxana Magdysyuk (Diamond Light Source) , Thomas Connolley (Diamond Light Source) , Eric Darcy (NASA Johnson Space Centre) , Gareth Hinds (National Physical Laboratory) , Dan J. L. Brett (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Paul Shearing (University College London; The Faraday Institution)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Journal Of Power Sources

State: Published (Approved)
Published: June 2020
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 20903

Abstract: It remains difficult to detect internal mechanical deformation and gas-induced degradation in lithium-ion batteries, especially outside specialized diagnostics laboratories. In this work, we demonstrate that electrochemical acoustic time-of-flight (EA-ToF) spectroscopy can be used as an insightful and field-deployable diagnostic/prognostic technique to sense the onset of failure. A 210 mAh commercial lithium-ion cell undergoing thermal abuse testing is probed with in situ and operando EA-ToF spectroscopy, together with simultaneous fractional thermal runaway calorimetry (FTRC) and synchrotron X-ray imaging. The combination of X-ray imaging and EA-ToF analysis provides new understanding into the through-plane mechanical deformation in lithium-ion batteries through direct visualisation and the acoustic ToF response. Internal structural changes, such as gas-induced delamination, are identified using EA-ToF spectroscopy due to variations in the attenuation and signal peak shifts. This is corroborated using X-ray imaging, demonstrating EA-ToF spectroscopy as a promising technique for detecting onset of battery failure.

Journal Keywords: Li-ion batteries; Battery safety; X-ray imaging; Acoustic ToF spectroscopy; Thermal runaway

Subject Areas: Chemistry, Energy

Instruments: I12-JEEP: Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing