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(M,Ru)O2(M = Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) rutiles and their use as oxygen evolution electrocatalysts in membrane electrode assemblies under acidic conditions

DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c01884 DOI Help

Authors: David Burnett (University of Warwick) , Enrico Petrucco (Johnson Matthey Technology Centre) , Katie M. Rigg (Johnson Matthey Technology Centre) , Christopher M. Zalitis (Johnson Matthey Technology Centre) , Jamie G. Lok (University of Warwick) , Reza J. Kashtiban (University of Warwick) , Martin R. Lees (University of Warwick) , Jonathan D. B. Sharman (Johnson Matthey Technology Centre) , Richard I. Walton (University of Warwick)
Co-authored by industrial partner: Yes

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Chemistry Of Materials

State: Published (Approved)
Published: June 2020
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 14239

Abstract: The rutiles (M,Ru)O2 (M = Mg, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu) are formed directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 °C from potassium perruthenate and either peroxides of zinc or magnesium, or poorly crystalline oxides of cobalt, nickel or copper. The polycrystalline powders consist of lath-shaped crystallites, tens of nanometres in maximum dimension. Powder neutron diffraction shows that the materials have expanded a axis and contracted c axis compared to the parent RuO2, but there is no evidence of lowering of symmetry to other AO2-type structures, supported by Raman spectroscopy. Rietveld refinement shows no evidence for oxide non-stoichiometry and provides a formula (MxRu1-x)O2 with 0.14 < x < 0.2, depending on the substituent metal. This is supported by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis on the transmission electron microscope, while Ru K-edge XANES spectroscopy shows that upon inclusion of the substituent the average Ru oxidation state is increased to balance charge. Variable temperature magnetic measurements provide evidence for atomic homogeneity of the mixed metal materials, with suppression of the high temperature antiferromagnetism of RuO2 and increased magnetic moment. The new rutiles all show enhanced electrocatalysis compared to reference RuO2 materials for oxygen evolution in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte at 60 °C, with higher specific and mass activity (per Ru) than a low surface area crystalline RuO2, and with less Ru dissolution over 1000 cycles compared to an RuO2 with a similar surface area. Magnesium substitution provides the optimum balance between stability and activity, despite leaching of the Mg2+ into solution, and this was proved in membrane electrode assemblies.

Subject Areas: Chemistry, Materials


Instruments: B18-Core EXAFS

Other Facilities: ISIS