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Biophysical characterizations in the solution state

DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-814515-9.00107-7 DOI Help

Authors: Robert Rambo (Diamond Light Source) , Katsuaki Inoue (Diamond Light Source)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Book Chapter

State: Published (Approved)
Published: December 2020

Abstract: Biophysical characterizations in the solution-state are not only critical to validating structural hypotheses derived from high-resolution structure determination methods but have provided key biological insights not accessible through high-resolution methods. Here we review the role of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) and X-ray footprinting mass spectrometry (XFMS) and their respective contributions to structural virology. SAXS, a low resolution X-ray scattering technique, is ideal for studying viruses as it readily captures structural information over many length-scales from monomers to the hierarchical capsid assembly in a single exposure. DXT and XFMS provide complimentary micro-to milli-second time-resolved measurements. DXT reveals how single protein molecules “wiggle” in solution whereas XFMS provides residue-specific, atomic-level information by mapping changes in solvent accessibility. Both DXT and XFMS can be performed in vivo allowing the testing of more challenging life sciences hypotheses.

Journal Keywords: Ab initio; Assembly; Contrast; Diffracted; Disassembly; DXT; Footprinting; Mass spectrometry; Modeling; Saxs; Scattering; Time-resolved; Tracking; Variation; XFMS; X-ray

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials

Technical Areas: