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Subsurface interstitials as promoters of three-dimensional growth of Ti on Si(111): An x-ray standing wave, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy investigation

DOI: 10.1116/1.1513638 DOI Help

Authors: G. Kuri (HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Germany) , Th. Schmidt (Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Germany) , V. Hagen (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany) , Gerhard Materlik (Diamond Light Source) , R. Wiesendanger (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany) , J. Falta (Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Germany)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Journal Of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, And Films , VOL 20 (6) , PAGES 1997-2003

State: Published (Approved)
Published: November 2002

Abstract: The adsorption and growth of Ti on Si(111)-7×7 surface at room temperature was studied with x-ray standing waves and high energy x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the specimens was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. We observed that at the submonolayer (0.08–0.24 ML) coverage a significant fraction of the metal atoms are coherently located in the near-surface interstitial positions of the Si lattice. For a higher Ti coverage (1.8 ML), the coherently ordered fraction almost vanishes and the surface is covered with three-dimensional islands. The Ti-coverage results are interpreted in terms of an interfacial transition layer containing Ti interstitials below the Si surface at low coverage, and a disordered mixed Ti–Si phase at higher Ti concentration.

Journal Keywords: Atomic force microscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Surface morphology

Subject Areas: Physics

Facility: Hasylab