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Lithium calix[4]arenes: structural studies and use in the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters

DOI: 10.1039/D1RA00175B DOI Help

Authors: Orlando Santoro (University of Hull) , Mark R. J. Elsegood (Loughborough University) , Simon J. Teat (Advanced Light Source) , Takehiko Yamato (Saga University) , Carl Redshaw (University of Hull)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Rsc Advances , VOL 11 , PAGES 11304 - 11317

State: Published (Approved)
Published: March 2021

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: We have structurally characterized a number of lithiated calix[4]arenes, where the bridge in the calix[4]arene is thia (–S–, LSH4), sulfinyl (–SO–, LSOH4), sulfonyl (–SO2–, LSO2H4), dimethyleneoxa (–CH2OCH2–, LCOCH4) or methylene (–CH2–, LH4). In the case of L4SH4, interaction with LiOtBu led to the isolation of the complex [Li8(L4S)2(THF)4]·5THF (1·5THF), whilst similar interaction of L4SOH4 led to the isolation of [Li6(L4SOH)2(THF)2]·5(THF) (2·5THF). Interestingly, the mixed sulfinyl/sulfonyl complexes [Li8(calix[4]arene(SO)(SO2)(SO1.68)2)2(THF)6]·8(THF) (3·8THF) and [Li5Na(LSO/3SO2H)2(THF)5]·7.5(THF) (4·7.5(THF) have also been characterized. Interaction of LiOtBu with LSO2H4 and LCOCH4 afforded [Li5L4SO2(OH)(THF)4]·2THF (5·2THF) and [Li6(LCOC)2(HOtBu)2]·0.78THF·1.22hexane (6·0.78THF·1.22hexane), respectively. In the case of LH4, reaction with LiOtBu in THF afforded a monoclinic polymorph [LH2Li2(thf)(OH2)2]·3THF (7·3THF) of a known triclinic form of the complex, whilst reaction of the de-butylated analogue of LH4, namely de-BuLH4, afforded a polymeric chain structure {[Li5(de-BuL)(OH)(NCMe)3]·2MeCN}n (8·2MeCN). For comparative catalytic studies, the complex [Li6(LPr)2(H2O)2]·hexane (9 hexane), where LPr2H2 = 1,3-di-n-propyloxycalix[4]areneH2, was also prepared. The molecular crystal structures of 1–9 are reported, and their ability to act as catalysts for the ring opening (co-)/polymerization (ROP) of the cyclic esters ε-caprolactone, δ-valerolactone, and rac-lactide has been investigated. In most of the cases, complex 6 outperformed the other systems, allowing for higher conversions and/or greated polymer Mn.

Diamond Keywords: Biodegradation

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry, Environment

Instruments: I19-Small Molecule Single Crystal Diffraction

Other Facilities: 11.3.1 at Advanced Light Source

Added On: 28/03/2021 22:35


Discipline Tags:

Materials Science Polymer Science Chemistry

Technical Tags:

Diffraction Small Molecule Diffraction