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Operando measurement of layer breathing modes in lithiated graphite

DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.1c00494 DOI Help

Authors: Hossein Yadegari (Imperial College London) , Mohamed A. Koronfel (Imperial College London; Diamond Light Source) , Kang Wang (mperial College London) , Daisy B. Thornton (Imperial College London) , Ifan E. L. Stephens (Imperial College London) , Carla Molteni (King’s College London) , Peter D. Haynes (Imperial College London) , Mary P. Ryan (Imperial College London)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Acs Energy Letters , VOL 220 , PAGES 1633 - 1638

State: Published (Approved)
Published: April 2021

Abstract: Despite their ubiquitous usage and increasing societal dependence on Li-ion batteries, there remains a lack of detailed empirical evidence of Li intercalation/deintercalation into graphite even though this process dictates the performance, longevity, and safety of the system. Here, we report direct detection and dissociation of specific crystallographic phases in the lithiated graphite, which form through a stepwise staging process. Using operando measurements, LiC18, LiC12, and LiC6 phases are observed via distinct low-frequency Raman features, which are the result of displacement of the graphite lattice by induced local strain. Density functional theory calculations confirm the nature of the Raman-active vibrational modes, to the layer breathing modes (LBMs) of the lithiated graphite. The new findings indicate graphene-like characteristics in the lithiated graphite under the deep charged condition due to the imposed strain by the inserted Li. Moreover, our approach also provides a simple experimental tool to measure induced strain in the graphite structure under full intercalation conditions.

Diamond Keywords: Batteries; Lithium-ion

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry, Energy

Technical Areas:

Added On: 05/04/2021 09:46

Discipline Tags:

Energy Materials Chemistry Materials Science

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