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Surface engineering strategy using urea to improve the rate performance of Na2Ti3O7 in Na‐ion batteries

DOI: 10.1002/chem.202003129 DOI Help

Authors: Sara I. R. Costa (Lancaster University; The Faraday Institution) , Yong‐seok Choi (The Faraday Institution; University College London) , Alistair J. Fielding (Liverpool John Moores University) , Andrew J. Naylor (Uppsala University) , John M. Griffin (Lancaster University) , Zdeněk Sofer (University of Chemistry and Technology Prague) , David O. Scanlon (The Faraday Institution; University College London; Diamond Light Source) , Nuria Tapia-Ruiz (Lancaster University; The Faraday Institution)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Chemistry – A European Journal , VOL 27 , PAGES 3875 - 3886

State: Published (Approved)
Published: February 2021

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Na2Ti3O7 (NTO) is considered a promising anode material for Na‐ion batteries due to its layered structure with an open framework and low and safe average operating voltage of 0.3 V vs. Na+/Na. However, its poor electronic conductivity needs to be addressed to make this material attractive for practical applications among other anode choices. Here, we report a safe, controllable and affordable method using urea that significantly improves the rate performance of NTO by producing surface defects such as oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups, and the secondary phase Na2Ti6O13. The enhanced electrochemical performance agrees with the higher Na+ ion diffusion coefficient, higher charge carrier density and reduced bandgap observed in these samples, without the need of nanosizing and/or complex synthetic strategies. A comprehensive study using a combination of diffraction, microscopic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques supported by computational studies based on DFT calculations, was carried out to understand the effects of this treatment on the surface, chemistry and electronic and charge storage properties of NTO. This study underscores the benefits of using urea as a strategy for enhancing the charge storage properties of NTO and thus, unfolding the potential of this material in practical energy storage applications.

Journal Keywords: anode; Na2Ti3O7 and Na2Ti6O13; oxygen vacancies; sodium titanate; sodium-ion batteries; urea

Diamond Keywords: Batteries; Sodium-ion

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry

Technical Areas:

Added On: 19/04/2021 22:34


Discipline Tags:

Energy Storage Energy Energy Materials Chemistry Materials Science

Technical Tags: