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Visualizing plating-induced cracking in lithium-anode solid-electrolyte cells

DOI: 10.1038/s41563-021-00967-8 DOI Help

Authors: Ziyang Ning (University of Oxford) , Dominic Spencer Jolly (University of Oxford) , Guanchen Li (The Faraday Institution; University of Oxford) , Robin De Meyere (University of Oxford) , Shengda D. Pu (University of Oxford) , Yang Chen (University of Oxford) , Jitti Kasemchainan (University of Oxford; The Faraday Institution) , Johannes Ihli (Paul Scherrer Institut) , Chen Gong (University of Oxford) , Boyang Liu (University of Oxford; The Faraday Institution) , Dominic L. R. Melvin (University of Oxford; The Faraday Institution) , Anne Bonnin (Paul Scherrer Institute) , Oxana Magdysyuk (Diamond Light Source) , Paul Adamson (University of Oxford) , Gareth O. Hartley (University of Oxford; The Faraday Institution) , Charles W. Monroe (The Faraday Institution; University of Oxford) , James Marrow (University of Oxford) , Peter G. Bruce (University of Oxford)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Nature Materials , VOL 1

State: Published (Approved)
Published: April 2021
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 20795

Abstract: Lithium dendrite (filament) propagation through ceramic electrolytes, leading to short circuits at high rates of charge, is one of the greatest barriers to realizing high-energy-density all-solid-state lithium-anode batteries. Utilizing in situ X-ray computed tomography coupled with spatially mapped X-ray diffraction, the propagation of cracks and the propagation of lithium dendrites through the solid electrolyte have been tracked in a Li/Li6PS5Cl/Li cell as a function of the charge passed. On plating, cracking initiates with spallation, conical ‘pothole’-like cracks that form in the ceramic electrolyte near the surface with the plated electrode. The spallations form predominantly at the lithium electrode edges where local fields are high. Transverse cracks then propagate from the spallations across the electrolyte from the plated to the stripped electrode. Lithium ingress drives the propagation of the spallation and transverse cracks by widening the crack from the rear; that is, the crack front propagates ahead of the Li. As a result, cracks traverse the entire electrolyte before the Li arrives at the other electrode, and therefore before a short circuit occurs.

Journal Keywords: Batteries; Imaging techniques; Materials for energy and catalysis

Diamond Keywords: Batteries; Solid-State Batteries (SSB)

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry, Energy

Instruments: I12-JEEP: Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing

Other Facilities: X02DA at Swiss Light Source

Added On: 26/04/2021 14:09

Discipline Tags:

Energy Storage Energy Energy Materials Chemistry Materials Science

Technical Tags:

Imaging Tomography