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Analysis of in vitro demineralised human enamel using multi-scale correlative optical, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution synchrotron wide-angle X-ray scattering

DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2021.109739 DOI Help

Authors: Cyril Besnard (MBLEM, University of Oxford) , Robert A. Harper (University of Birmingham) , Enrico Salvati (MBLEM, University of Oxford; University of Udine) , Thomas E. J. Moxham (MBLEM, University of Oxford; Diamond Light Source) , Leon Romano Brandt (MBLEM, University of Oxford) , Gabriel Landini (University of Birmingham) , Richard M. Shelton (University of Birmingham) , Alexander M. Korsunsky (MBLEM, University of Oxford)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Materials & Design

State: Published (Approved)
Published: April 2021
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 19192

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Enamel caries is a highly prevalent disease that involves demineralisation of the enamel structure. In this study, we report the analysis of artificially demineralised human enamel slices etched using lactic acid (2 % v/v) in comparison with healthy enamel using correlative techniques of optical and electron microscopy, as well as scanning diffraction. Demineralisation of the enamel was characterised within the micron to sub-micron scale. The structure of the healthy enamel was investigated using focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and compared with an etched sample to reveal structural differences. Additional chemical analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was performed and a decrease in the Ca/P atomic % ratio was found in etched samples in comparison with healthy enamel, suggesting more loss of calcium compared with phosphorus. Synchrotron wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) was performed on the samples to reveal the differences in the diffraction patterns before and after etching in terms of lattice structure and preferred orientation (texture). Texture maps were extracted from diffraction analysis at 500 nm spatial resolution. These maps were correlated with the dimension of the enamel structure. The multi-scale correlative approach provided insights into the demineralisation-induced enamel structure alteration at a resolution approaching 500 nm.

Journal Keywords: Synchrotron; X-ray diffraction; enamel; in vitro demineralisation; scanning electron microscopy; energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials

Instruments: B16-Test Beamline

Added On: 28/04/2021 08:50


Discipline Tags:

Dentistry Health & Wellbeing Life Sciences & Biotech

Technical Tags:

Scattering Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS)