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Structural and mechanistic insights into the Artemis endonuclease and strategies for its inhibition

DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkab693 DOI Help

Authors: Yuliana Yosaatmadja (University of Oxford) , Hannah T. Baddock (University of Oxford) , Joseph A. Newman (University of Oxford) , Marcin Bielinski (University of Oxford) , Angeline E. Gavard (University of Oxford) , Shubhashish M. M. Mukhopadhyay (University of Oxford) , Adam a. Dannerfjord (University of Oxford) , Christopher J. Schofield (University of Oxford) , Peter j. Mchugh (University of Oxford) , Opher Gileadi (University of Oxford)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Nucleic Acids Research , VOL 44

State: Published (Approved)
Published: August 2021
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 19301

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Artemis (SNM1C/DCLRE1C) is an endonuclease that plays a key role in development of B- and T-lymphocytes and in dsDNA break repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Artemis is phosphorylated by DNA-PKcs and acts to open DNA hairpin intermediates generated during V(D)J and class-switch recombination. Artemis deficiency leads to congenital radiosensitive severe acquired immune deficiency (RS-SCID). Artemis belongs to a superfamily of nucleases containing metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) and β-CASP (CPSF-Artemis-SNM1-Pso2) domains. We present crystal structures of the catalytic domain of wildtype and variant forms of Artemis, including one causing RS-SCID Omenn syndrome. The catalytic domain of the Artemis has similar endonuclease activity to the phosphorylated full-length protein. Our structures help explain the predominantly endonucleolytic activity of Artemis, which contrasts with the predominantly exonuclease activity of the closely related SNM1A and SNM1B MBL fold nucleases. The structures reveal a second metal binding site in its β-CASP domain unique to Artemis, which is amenable to inhibition by compounds including ebselen. By combining our structural data with that from a recently reported Artemis structure, we were able model the interaction of Artemis with DNA substrates. The structures, including one of Artemis with the cephalosporin ceftriaxone, will help enable the rational development of selective SNM1 nuclease inhibitors.

Diamond Keywords: Enzymes

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials, Chemistry, Medicine

Instruments: I03-Macromolecular Crystallography , I04-Macromolecular Crystallography , I24-Microfocus Macromolecular Crystallography

Added On: 30/08/2021 11:50


Discipline Tags:

Non-Communicable Diseases Health & Wellbeing Cancer Biochemistry Genetics Catalysis Chemistry Structural biology Drug Discovery Life Sciences & Biotech

Technical Tags:

Diffraction Macromolecular Crystallography (MX)