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Enclosed cells for extending soft X-ray spectroscopies to atmospheric pressures and above

DOI: 10.1021/bk-2021-1396.ch008 DOI Help

Authors: Elizabeth Jones (University of Oxford; Diamond Light Source) , Jack E. N. Swallow (University of Oxford; Diamond Light Source) , Robert S Weatherup (University of Oxford; Diamond Light Source; The Faraday Institution)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Book Chapter
ISBN: 9780841298125
Book Chapter: 8

State: Published (Approved)
Published: November 2021

Abstract: X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopies can provide valuable interface-sensitive chemical information; however, they are traditionally performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions to maximize the inelastic mean free path of photoelectrons and attenuation lengths of X-rays. Developments in the field, including electron analyzers coupled with sophisticated differentially pumped lenses, have made it possible to extend these techniques to liquid and gas environments (up to tens of mbar). Enclosed environmental cells are an alternative approach that promises access to atmospheric pressures and above, and the potential for low-cost and widespread deployment by incorporation into standard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy systems. In this chapter we discuss the progress made in the development of such enclosed environmental cells for X-ray spectroscopies. We focus on the main requirements to perform these measurements, including discussion of the implementation of X-ray and photoelectron transparent membranes, common reaction cell designs and materials, and the methods of detection typically employed. We also present some landmark examples which mark progress in this area up to now, before providing an outlook for the topic as a whole.

Journal Keywords: X-rays; Two dimensional materials; Membranes; Materials; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Subject Areas: Technique Development, Physics

Technical Areas:

Added On: 15/11/2021 09:22

Discipline Tags:

Physics Technique Development - Physics

Technical Tags: