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Superstoichiometric binding of the anticancer agent titanocene dichloride by human serum transferrin and the accompanying lobe closure

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.1c00813 DOI Help

Authors: Lauren A. Profitt (Temple University) , Richard H. G. Baxter (Temple University) , Ann M. Valentine (Temple University)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Biochemistry , VOL 271

State: Published (Approved)
Published: April 2022
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 23943

Abstract: Titanocene dichloride (TDC) is an anticancer agent that delivers Ti(IV) into each of the two Fe(III) binding sites of bilobal human serum transferrin (Tf). This protein has been implicated in the selective transport of Ti(IV) to cells. How Ti(IV) might be released from the Tf Fe(III) binding site has remained a question, and crystal structures have raised issues about lobe occupancy and lobe closure in Ti(IV)-loaded Tf, compared with the Fe(III)-loaded form. Here, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy reveals that Tf can stabilize toward hydrolytic precipitation more than 2 equiv of Ti, implying superstoichiometric binding beyond the two Fe(III) binding sites. Further studies support the inability of TDC to induce a complete lobe closure of Tf. Fluorescence data for TDC binding at low equivalents of TDC support an initial protein conformational change and lobe closure upon Ti binding, whereas data at higher equivalents support an open lobe configuration. Spectroscopic titration reveals less intense protein–metal electronic transitions as TDC equivalents are increased. Denaturing urea-PAGE gels and small angle X-ray scattering studies support an open lobe conformation. The concentrations of bicarbonate used in some earlier studies are demonstrated here to cause a pH change over time, which may contribute to variation in the apparent molar absorptivity associated with Ti(IV) binding in the Fe binding site. Finally, Fe(III)-bound holo-Tf still stabilizes TDC toward hydrolytic precipitation, a finding that underscores the importance of the interactions of Tf and TDC outside the Fe(III) binding site and suggests possible new pathways of Ti introduction to cells.

Journal Keywords: Peptides and proteins; Metals; Absorption; Fluorescence; Screening assays

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials, Chemistry


Instruments: B21-High Throughput SAXS

Added On: 04/04/2022 15:17

Discipline Tags:

Non-Communicable Diseases Health & Wellbeing Cancer Biochemistry Chemistry Biophysics Life Sciences & Biotech

Technical Tags:

Scattering Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)