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Dendritic crystallization in hydrous basaltic magmas controls magma mobility within the Earth’s crust

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-30890-8 DOI Help

Authors: Fabio Arzilli (University of Camerino; University of Manchester) , Margherita Polacci (University of Manchester) , Giuseppe La Spina (University of Manchester) , Nolwenn Le Gall (University College London; Research Complex at Harwell) , Edward W. Llewellin (Durham University) , Richard A. Brooker (University of Bristol) , Rafael Torres-Orozco (Universidad Veracruzana; National Autonomous University of Mexico) , Danilo Di Genova (University of Bayreuth) , David A. Neave (University of Manchester) , Margaret E. Hartley (University of Cambridge) , Heidy M. Mader (University of Bristol) , Daniele Giordano (University of Torino) , Robert Atwood (Diamond Light Source) , Peter D. Lee (University College London; Research Complex at Harwell) , Florian Heidelbach (University of Bayreuth) , Mike R. Burton (University of Manchester)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Nature Communications , VOL 13

State: Published (Approved)
Published: June 2022
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 16188

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: The majority of basaltic magmas stall in the Earth’s crust as a result of the rheological evolution caused by crystallization during transport. However, the relationships between crystallinity, rheology and eruptibility remain uncertain because it is difficult to observe dynamic magma crystallization in real time. Here, we present in-situ 4D data for crystal growth kinetics and the textural evolution of pyroxene during crystallization of trachybasaltic magmas in high-temperature experiments under water-saturated conditions at crustal pressures. We observe dendritic growth of pyroxene on initially euhedral cores, and a surprisingly rapid increase in crystal fraction and aspect ratio at undercooling ≥30 °C. Rapid dendritic crystallization favours a rheological transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian behaviour within minutes. We use a numerical model to quantify the impact of rapid dendritic crystallization on basaltic dike propagation, and demonstrate its dramatic effect on magma mobility and eruptibility. Our results provide insights into the processes that control whether intrusions lead to eruption or not.

Journal Keywords: Petrology; Volcanology

Diamond Keywords: Volcanology

Subject Areas: Earth Science

Instruments: I12-JEEP: Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing

Added On: 19/06/2022 11:08


Discipline Tags:

Earth Sciences & Environment Natural disaster Geology Geochemistry

Technical Tags:

Imaging Tomography