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P-type conductivity in Sn-doped Sb2Se3

DOI: 10.1088/2515-7655/ac91a6 DOI Help

Authors: Theodore D. C. Hobson (University of Liverpool) , Huw Shiel (Imperial College London) , Christopher N. Savory (University College London) , Jack E. N. Swallow (University of Oxford) , Leanne A. H. Jones (University of Liverpool) , Thomas J. Featherstone (University of Liverpool) , Matthew J. Smiles (University of Liverpool) , Pardeep K. Thakur (Diamond Light Source) , Tien-Lin Lee (Diamond Light Source) , Bhaskar Das (University of Minnesota) , Chris Leighton (University of Minnesota) , Guillaume Zoppi (Northumbria University) , Vin R. Dhanak (University of Liverpool) , David O. Scanlon (University College London) , Tim D. Veal (University of Liverpool) , Ken Durose (University of Liverpool) , Jonathan D. Major (University of Liverpool)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Journal Of Physics: Energy

State: Published (Approved)
Published: September 2022
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 23160

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) is a promising absorber material for thin-film photovoltaics. However, certain areas of fundamental understanding of this material remain incomplete and this presents a barrier to further efficiency gains. In particular, recent studies have highlighted the role of majority carrier type and extrinsic doping in drastically changing the performance of high efficiency devices [1]. Herein, Sndoped Sb2Se3 bulk crystals are shown to exhibit p-type conductivity using Hall effect and hot-probe measurements. The measured conductivities are higher than those achieved through native defects alone, but with a carrier density (up to 7.4 × 1014 cm−3) several orders of magnitude smaller than the quantity of Sn included in the source material. Additionally, a combination of ultraviolet, X-ray and hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopies are employed to obtain a non-destructive depth profile of the valence band maximum, confirming p-type conductivity and indicating a majority carrier type inversion layer at the surface. Finally, these results are supported by density functional theory calculations of the defect formation energies in Sn-doped Sb2Se3, showing a possible limit on the carrier concentration achievable with Sn as a dopant. This study sheds light on the effectiveness of Sn as a p-type dopant in Sb2Se3 and highlights avenues for further optimisation of doped Sb2Se3 for solar energy devices.

Journal Keywords: Sb2Se3; Inversion Layer; Doping; Photovoltaics; Crystals

Diamond Keywords: Photovoltaics

Subject Areas: Materials, Physics, Energy

Instruments: I09-Surface and Interface Structural Analysis

Added On: 21/09/2022 12:26


Discipline Tags:

Surfaces Earth Sciences & Environment Sustainable Energy Systems Energy Physics Climate Change Physical Chemistry Energy Materials Chemistry Materials Science interfaces and thin films

Technical Tags:

Spectroscopy X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES)