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On the use of Ti3C2Tx MXene as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.2c05785 DOI Help

Authors: Tatiana Koriukina (Uppsala University) , Antonia Kotronia (Uppsala University; University of Southampton) , Joseph Halim (Linköping University) , Maria Hahlin (Uppsala University) , Johanna Rosen (Linköping University) , Kristina Edström (Uppsala University) , Leif Nyholm (Uppsala University)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Acs Omega

State: Published (Approved)
Published: November 2022
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 23159 , 26551

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: The pursuit of new and better battery materials has given rise to numerous studies of the possibilities to use two-dimensional negative electrode materials, such as MXenes, in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, both the origin of the capacity and the reasons for significant variations in the capacity seen for different MXene electrodes still remain unclear, even for the most studied MXene: Ti3C2Tx. Herein, freestanding Ti3C2Tx MXene films, composed only of Ti3C2Tx MXene flakes, are studied as additive-free negative lithium-ion battery electrodes, employing lithium metal half-cells and a combination of chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. The aim of this study is to identify the redox reactions responsible for the observed reversible and irreversible capacities of Ti3C2Tx-based lithium-ion batteries as well as the reasons for the significant capacity variation seen in the literature. The results demonstrate that the reversible capacity mainly stems from redox reactions involving the Tx–Ti–C titanium species situated on the surfaces of the MXene flakes, whereas the Ti–C titanium present in the core of the flakes remains electro-inactive. While a relatively low reversible capacity is obtained for electrodes composed of pristine Ti3C2Tx MXene flakes, significantly higher capacities are seen after having exposed the flakes to water and air prior to the manufacturing of the electrodes. This is ascribed to a change in the titanium oxidation state at the surfaces of the MXene flakes, resulting in increased concentrations of Ti(II), Ti(III), and Ti(IV) in the Tx–Ti–C surface species. The significant irreversible capacity seen in the first cycles is mainly attributed to the presence of residual water in the Ti3C2Tx electrodes. As the capacities of Ti3C2Tx MXene negative electrodes depend on the concentration of Ti(II), Ti(III), and Ti(IV) in the Tx–Ti–C surface species and the water content, different capacities can be expected when using different manufacturing, pretreatment, and drying procedures.

Journal Keywords: Electrodes; Materials; Redox reactions; Titanium; Two dimensional materials

Diamond Keywords: Batteries; Lithium-ion

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry, Energy

Instruments: I09-Surface and Interface Structural Analysis

Other Facilities: BALDER at MAX IV

Added On: 09/11/2022 10:46


Discipline Tags:

Surfaces Energy Storage Energy Physics Physical Chemistry Energy Materials Chemistry Materials Science

Technical Tags:

Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES)