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Synchrotron X-ray studies of the structural and functional hierarchies in mineralised human dental enamel: a state-of-the-art review

DOI: 10.3390/dj11040098 DOI Help

Authors: Cyril Besnard (University of Oxford) , Ali Marie (University of Oxford) , Sisini Sasidharan (University of Oxford) , Robert A. Harper (University of Birmingham) , Richard M. Shelton (University of Birmingham) , Gabriel Landini (University of Birmingham) , Alexander M. Korsunsky (University of Oxford)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Dentistry Journal , VOL 11

State: Published (Approved)
Published: April 2023

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Hard dental tissues possess a complex hierarchical structure that is particularly evident in enamel, the most mineralised substance in the human body. Its complex and interlinked organisation at the Ångstrom (crystal lattice), nano-, micro-, and macro-scales is the result of evolutionary optimisation for mechanical and functional performance: hardness and stiffness, fracture toughness, thermal, and chemical resistance. Understanding the physical–chemical–structural relationships at each scale requires the application of appropriately sensitive and resolving probes. Synchrotron X-ray techniques offer the possibility to progress significantly beyond the capabilities of conventional laboratory instruments, i.e., X-ray diffractometers, and electron and atomic force microscopes. The last few decades have witnessed the accumulation of results obtained from X-ray scattering (diffraction), spectroscopy (including polarisation analysis), and imaging (including ptychography and tomography). The current article presents a multi-disciplinary review of nearly 40 years of discoveries and advancements, primarily pertaining to the study of enamel and its demineralisation (caries), but also linked to the investigations of other mineralised tissues such as dentine, bone, etc. The modelling approaches informed by these observations are also overviewed. The strategic aim of the present review was to identify and evaluate prospective avenues for analysing dental tissues and developing treatments and prophylaxis for improved dental health.

Journal Keywords: synchrotron X-ray radiation; human tooth; enamel; caries; multi-modal analysis

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials

Diamond Offline Facilities: Electron Physical Sciences Imaging Centre (ePSIC)
Instruments: B16-Test Beamline , DIAD-Dual Imaging and Diffraction Beamline , E01-JEM ARM 200CF , E02-JEM ARM 300CF , I08-Scanning X-ray Microscopy beamline (SXM) , I12-JEEP: Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing , I13-1-Coherence , I13-2-Diamond Manchester Imaging , I14-Hard X-ray Nanoprobe

Added On: 18/04/2023 09:02


Discipline Tags:

Dentistry Health & Wellbeing Life Sciences & Biotech

Technical Tags:

Diffraction Imaging Microscopy Scattering Spectroscopy Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI) Tomography X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Ptychography Electron Microscopy (EM) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES)