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Correlative non-destructive techniques to investigate aging and orientation effects in automotive Li-ion pouch cells

DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2023.10.011 DOI Help

Authors: Arthur Fordham (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Zoran Milojevic (The Faraday Institution; Newcastle University) , Emily Giles (The Faraday Institution; University of Birmingham) , Wenjia Du (University College London; The Faraday Institution; University of Oxford) , Rhodri E. Owen (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Stefan Michalik (Diamond Light Source) , Philip A. Chater (Diamond Light Source) , Prodip K. Das (The Faraday Institution; Newcastle University) , Pierrot S. Attidekou (Newcastle University) , Simon M. Lambert (The Faraday Institution; Newcastle University) , Phoebe K. Allan (The Faraday Institution; University of Birmingham) , Peter R. Slater (The Faraday Institution; University of Birmingham) , Paul A. Anderson (The Faraday Institution; University of Birmingham) , Rhodri Jervis (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Paul R. Shearing (University College London; The Faraday Institution; University of Oxford) , Dan J. I. Brett (University College London; The Faraday Institution)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Joule , VOL 7 , PAGES 2622 - 2652

State: Published (Approved)
Published: November 2023
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 27719

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: The growing demand for electric vehicles (EVs) continues to raise concern for the disposal of lithium-ion batteries reaching their end of life (EoL). The cells inside EVs age differently depending on multiple factors. Yet, following extraction, there are significant challenges with characterizing degradation in cells that have been aged from real-world EV usage. We employed four non-destructive techniques—infrared thermography, ultrasonic mapping, X-ray tomography, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction—to analyze the aging of Nissan Leaf large-format pouch cells that were arranged in different orientations and locations within the pack. The combination of these methods provided complementary insights into cell degradation, with rotated/vertically aligned cells exhibiting distinct aging patterns compared with flat/horizontally aligned cells. These findings offer valuable information for pack design and demonstrate how cost-effective non-destructive techniques can provide practical assessment capabilities comparable to synchrotron studies. This approach enables decision support during EoL, enhancing battery production efficiency and minimizing material waste.

Journal Keywords: automotive Li-ion pouch cell; electric vehicle; aging; infrared thermal imaging; ultrasound acoustic measurement; X-ray tomography; deep learning; synchrotron X-ray diffraction

Diamond Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Batteries; Lithium-ion

Subject Areas: Materials, Engineering, Chemistry

Instruments: I12-JEEP: Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing

Added On: 22/11/2023 10:00


Discipline Tags:

Automotive Energy Storage Earth Sciences & Environment Energy Artificial Intelligence Materials Engineering & Processes Physical Chemistry Energy Materials Information & Communication Technologies Chemistry Materials Science Engineering & Technology

Technical Tags:

Diffraction X-ray Powder Diffraction