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The battery failure databank: Insights from an open-access database of thermal runaway behaviors of Li-ion cells and a resource for benchmarking risks

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2024.234106 DOI Help

Authors: Donal P. Finegan (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) , Julia Billman (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) , Jacob Darst (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) , Peter Hughes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) , Jesus Trillo (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) , Matt Sharp (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) , Alex Benson (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) , Martin Pham (University College London) , Inez Kesuma (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Mark Buckwell (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Hamish T. Reid (University College London) , Charlie Kirchner-Burles (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Matilda Fransson (University College London) , David Petrushenko (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) , Thomas M. M. Heenan (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Rhodri Jervis (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Rhodri Owen (University College London; The Faraday Institution) , Drasti Patel (University College London) , Ludovic Broche (ESRF - The European Synchrotron) , Alexander Rack (ESRF - The European Synchrotron) , Oxana Magdysyuk (Diamond Light Source) , Matt Keyser (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) , William Walker (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) , Paul Shearing (University College London; The Faraday Institution; The ZERO Institute, University of Oxford) , Eric Darcy (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Journal Of Power Sources , VOL 597

State: Published (Approved)
Published: March 2024
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 24112 , 20903 , 17641

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: The thermal response of Li-ion cells can greatly vary for identical cell designs tested under identical conditions, the distribution of which is costly to fully characterize experimentally. The open-source Battery Failure Databank presented here contains robust, high-quality data from hundreds of abuse tests spanning numerous commercial cell designs and testing conditions. Data was gathered using a fractional thermal runaway calorimeter and contains the fractional breakdown of heat and mass that was ejected, as well as high-speed synchrotron radiography of the internal dynamic response of cells during thermal runaway. The distribution of thermal output, mass ejection, and internal response of commercial cells are compared for different abuse-test conditions, which when normalized on a per amp-hour basis show a strong positive correlation between heat output from cells, the fraction of mass ejected from the cells, their energy- and power-density. Ejected mass was shown to contain 10 × more heat per gram than non-ejected mass. The causes of ‘outlier’ thermal and ejection responses i.e., extreme cases, are elucidated by high-speed radiography which showed how occurrences such as vent clogging can create more hazardous conditions. High-speed radiography also demonstrated how the time-resolved interplay of thermal runaway propagation and mass ejection influences the total heat generated.

Diamond Keywords: Batteries; Lithium-ion

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry, Energy

Instruments: I12-JEEP: Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing

Other Facilities: ID19 at ESRF

Added On: 07/02/2024 10:19


Discipline Tags:

Energy Storage Energy Physical Chemistry Energy Materials Chemistry Materials Science Chemical Engineering Engineering & Technology

Technical Tags:

Imaging Tomography