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Imaging the magnetic nanowire cross section and magnetic ordering within a suspended 3D artificial spin-ice

DOI: 10.1063/5.0176907 DOI Help

Authors: Edward Harding (Cardiff University) , Tohru Araki (UVSOR Synchrotron Facility; Diamond Light Source) , Joseph Askey (Cardiff University) , Matthew Hunt (Cardiff University) , Arjen Van Den Berg (Cardiff University) , David Raftrey (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; University of California Santa Cruz) , Lucia Aballe (ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility) , Burkhard Kaulich (Diamond Light Source) , Emyr Macdonald (Cardiff University) , Peter Fischer (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; University of California Santa Cruz) , Sam Ladak (Cardiff University)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Apl Materials , VOL 12

State: Published (Approved)
Published: February 2024

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Artificial spin-ice systems are patterned arrays of magnetic nanoislands arranged into frustrated geometries and provide insight into the physics of ordering and emergence. The majority of these systems have been realized in two-dimensions, mainly due to the ease of fabrication, but with recent developments in advanced nanolithography, three-dimensional artificial spin ice (ASI) structures have become possible, providing a new paradigm in their study. Such artificially engineered 3D systems provide new opportunities in realizing tunable ground states, new domain wall topologies, monopole propagation, and advanced device concepts, such as magnetic racetrack memory. Direct imaging of 3DASI structures with magnetic force microscopy has thus far been key to probing the physics of these systems but is limited in both the depth of measurement and resolution, ultimately restricting measurement to the uppermost layers of the system. In this work, a method is developed to fabricate 3DASI lattices over an aperture using two-photon lithography, thermal evaporation, and oxygen plasma exposure, allowing the probe of element-specific structural and magnetic information using soft x-ray microscopy with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as magnetic contrast. The suspended polymer–permalloy lattices are found to be stable under repeated soft x-ray exposure. Analysis of the x-ray absorption signal allows the complex cross section of the magnetic nanowires to be reconstructed and demonstrates a crescent-shaped geometry. Measurement of the XMCD images after the application of an in-plane field suggests a decrease in magnetic moment on the lattice surface due to oxidation, while a measurable signal is retained on sub-lattices below the surface.

Diamond Keywords: Data Storage

Subject Areas: Materials, Physics, Information and Communication Technology

Instruments: I08-Scanning X-ray Microscopy beamline (SXM)

Other Facilities: Mistral at ALBA

Added On: 19/02/2024 09:11

Discipline Tags:

Physics Components & Micro-systems Information & Communication Technologies Magnetism Materials Science Nanoscience/Nanotechnology

Technical Tags:

Microscopy Spectroscopy X-ray Microscopy Scanning X-ray Microscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)