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Atmospheric Influence upon Crystallization and Electronic Disorder and Its Impact on the Photophysical Properties of Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells

DOI: 10.1021/nn506465n DOI Help

Authors: Sandeep Pathak (University of Oxford) , Alessandro Sepe (University of Cambridge) , Aditya Sadhanala (University of Cambridge) , Felix Deschler (University of Cambridge) , Amir Haghighirad (University of Oxford) , Nobuya Sakai (University of Oxford) , Karl C. Goedel (University of Cambridge) , Samuel D. Stranks (University of Oxford) , Nakita Noel (University of Oxford) , Michael Price (University of Cambridge) , Sven Hüttner (University of Cambridge) , Nicholas A. Hawkins (University of Oxford) , Richard H. Friend (University of Oxford) , Ullrich Steiner (University of Oxford) , Henry J. Snaith (University of Oxford)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Acs Nano , VOL 9 (3) , PAGES 2311 - 2320

State: Published (Approved)
Published: March 2015
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 8459

Abstract: Recently, solution-processable organic–inorganic metal halide perovskites have come to the fore as a result of their high power-conversion efficiencies (PCE) in photovoltaics, exceeding 17%. To attain reproducibility in the performance, one of the critical factors is the processing conditions of the perovskite film, which directly influences the photophysical properties and hence the device performance. Here we study the effect of annealing parameters on the crystal structure of the perovskite films and correlate these changes with its photophysical properties. We find that the crystal formation is kinetically driven by the annealing atmosphere, time and temperature. Annealing in air produces an improved crystallinity and large grain domains as compared to nitrogen. Lower photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) and shorter photoluminescence (PL) lifetimes are observed for nitrogen annealed perovskite films as compared to the air-annealed counterparts. We note that the limiting nonradiative pathways (i.e., maximizing PLQE) is important for obtaining the highest device efficiency. This indicates a critical impact of the atmosphere upon crystallization and the ultimate device performance.

Journal Keywords: photovoltaic; perovskite solar cell; thermal annealing; crystal symmetry; electronic disorder; organic-inorganic

Subject Areas: Energy, Materials, Physics


Instruments: I22-Small angle scattering & Diffraction

Other Facilities: No