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Identification Of The Elusive Pyruvate Reductase Of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts

DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcv167 DOI Help
PMID: 26574578 PMID Help

Authors: S. J. Burgess (Imperial College London) , H. Taha (Imperial College London) , J. A. Yeoman (Imperial College London) , O. Iamshanova (Imperial College London) , K. X. Chan (University of Cambridge) , M. Boehm (Imperial College London) , J. Bundy (Imperial College London) , W. Bialek (Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, U.K.) , J. W. Murray (Imperial College London) , P. J. Nixon (Imperial College London)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Plant And Cell Physiology

State: Published (Approved)
Published: November 2015
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 7299

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the creation of formate, acetate, ethanol and small amounts of other metabolites including D-lactate and hydrogen. Progress has been made in identifying the enzymes involved in these pathways and their sub-cellular locations; however, the identity of the enzyme involved in reducing pyruvate to D-lactate has remained unclear. Based on sequence comparisons, enzyme activity measurements, X-ray crystallography, biochemical fractionation and analysis of knock-down mutants we conclude that pyruvate reduction in the chloroplast is catalysed by a tetrameric NAD+-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase encoded by Cre07.g324550. Its expression during aerobic growth supports a possible function as a 'lactate valve' for the export of lactate to the mitochondrion for oxidation by cytochrome-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenases and by glycolate dehydrogenase. We also present a revised spatial model of fermentation based on our immunochemical detection of the likely pyruvate decarboxylase, PDC3, in the cytoplasm.

Journal Keywords: Chlamydomonas; Ldh; Biohydrogen; Fermentation; Lactate

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials

Instruments: I02-Macromolecular Crystallography

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