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Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy At Ultra-low Temperatures

DOI: 10.3791/50129 DOI Help
PMID: 23093178 PMID Help

Authors: Sergey Borisenko (Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden) , Volodymyr B. Zabolotnyy (IFW-Dresden) , Alexander A. Kordyuk (IFW-Dresden) , Danil V. Evtushinsky (IFW-Dresden) , Timur K. Kim (Diamond Light Source) , Emanuela Carleschi (University of Johannesburg) , Bryan P. Doyle (University of Johannesburg) , Rosalba Fittipaldi (CNR - SPIN UOS Salerno) , Mario Cuoco (Università di Salerno) , Antonio Vecchione (CNR - SPIN UOS Salerno) , Helmut Berger (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Journal Of Visualized Experiments , VOL 68

State: Published (Approved)
Published: October 2012

Abstract: The physical properties of a material are defined by its electronic structure. Electrons in solids are characterized by energy (ω) and momentum (k) and the probability to find them in a particular state with given ω and k is described by the spectral function A(k, ω). This function can be directly measured in an experiment based on the well-known photoelectric effect, for the explanation of which Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize back in 1921. In the photoelectric effect the light shone on a surface ejects electrons from the material. According to Einstein, energy conservation allows one to determine the energy of an electron inside the sample, provided the energy of the light photon and kinetic energy of the outgoing photoelectron are known. Momentum conservation makes it also possible to estimate k relating it to the momentum of the photoelectron by measuring the angle at which the photoelectron left the surface. The modern version of this technique is called Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) and exploits both conservation laws in order to determine the electronic structure, i.e. energy and momentum of electrons inside the solid. In order to resolve the details crucial for understanding the topical problems of condensed matter physics, three quantities need to be minimized: uncertainty* in photon energy, uncertainty in kinetic energy of photoelectrons and temperature of the sample.

Journal Keywords: Electron energy bands; band structure of solids; superconducting materials; condensed matter physics; ARPES; angle-resolved photoemission synchrotron

Subject Areas: Physics

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Added On: 09/02/2016 16:53

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