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Monitoring the formation of a CH3NH3PbI3–xClx perovskite during thermal annealing using X-ray scattering

DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601309 DOI Help

Authors: Alex Barrows (University of Sheffield) , Samuele Lilliu (University of Sheffield) , Andrew Pearson (University of Cambridge) , David Babonneau (Institut Pprime, UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers) , Alan Dunbar (University of Sheffield) , David Lidzey (University of Sheffield)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Advanced Functional Materials

State: Published (Approved)
Published: May 2016

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Grazing incidence wide and small angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS and GISAXS) measurements have been used to study the crystallization kinetics of the organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3–xClx during thermal annealing. In situ GIWAXS measurements recorded during annealing are used to characterize and quantify the transition from a crystalline precursor to the perovskite structure. In situ GISAXS measurements indicate an evolution of crystallite sizes during annealing, with the number of crystallites having sizes between 30 and 400 nm increasing through the annealing process. Using ex situ scanning electron microscopy, this evolution in length scales is confirmed and a concurrent increase in film surface coverage is observed, a parameter crucial for efficient solar cell performance. A series of photovoltaic devices are then fabricated in which perovskite films have been annealed for different times, and variations in device performance are explained on the basis of X-ray scattering measurements.

Diamond Keywords: Photovoltaics; Semiconductors

Subject Areas: Materials, Energy, Environment


Instruments: I22-Small angle scattering & Diffraction

Other Facilities: ESRF

Added On: 14/06/2016 09:02

Documents:
Adv Funct Materials - 2016 - Barrows - Monitoring the Formation of a CH3NH3PbI3 xClx Perovskite during Thermal Annealing.pdf

Discipline Tags:

Earth Sciences & Environment Sustainable Energy Systems Energy Climate Change Energy Materials Materials Science Perovskites Metallurgy

Technical Tags:

Scattering Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS)