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Structural analysis of X-Linked Retinoschisis mutations reveals distinct classes which differentially effect retinoschisin function

DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddw345 DOI Help

Authors: Ewan P. Ramsay (University of Manchester) , Richard F. Collins (University of Manchester) , Thomas W. Owens (University of Manchester) , C. Alistair Siebert (Diamond Light Source) , Richard P. O.. Jones (University of Manchester; Anglia Ruskin University) , Tao Wang (University of Manchester) , Alan M. Roseman (University of Manchester) , Clair Baldock (University of Manchester)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Human Molecular Genetics

State: Published (Approved)
Published: October 2016
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 13278

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Retinoschisin, an octameric retinal-specific protein, is essential for retinal architecture with mutations causing X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), a monogenic form of macular degeneration. Most XLRS-associated mutations cause intracellular retention, however a subset are secreted as octamers and the cause of their pathology is ill-defined. Therefore, here we investigated the solution structure of the retinoschisin monomer and the impact of two XLRS-causing mutants using a combinatorial approach of biophysics and cryo-EM. The retinoschisin monomer has an elongated structure which persists in the octameric assembly. Retinoschisin forms a dimer of octamers with each octameric ring adopting a planar propeller structure. Comparison of the octamer with the hexadecamer structure indicated little conformational change in the retinoschisin octamer upon dimerization, suggesting that the octamer provides a stable interface for construction of the hexadecamer. The H207Q XLRS-associated mutation was found in the interface between octamers and destabilized both monomeric and octameric retinoschisin. Octamer dimerization is consistent with the adhesive function of retinoschisin supporting interactions between retinal cell layers, so disassembly would prevent structural coupling between opposing membranes. In contrast, cryo-EM structural analysis of the R141H mutation at ~4.2Å resolution was found to only cause a subtle conformational change in the propeller tips, potentially perturbing an interaction site. Together, these findings support distinct mechanisms of pathology for two classes of XLRS-associated mutations in the retinoschisin assembly.

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials

Diamond Offline Facilities: Electron Bio-Imaging Centre (eBIC)
Instruments: Krios I-Titan Krios I at Diamond

Other Facilities: ESRF

Documents:
hmg.ddw345.full.pdf