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Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics

DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2008.128 DOI Help

Authors: Anton Barty (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California) , Sébastien Boutet (University of Illinois) , Michael J. Bogan (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California) , Stefan Hau-riege (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California) , Stefano Marchesini (Livermore National Laboratory, California) , Klaus Sokolowski-tinten (Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany) , Nikola Stojanovic (Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany) , Raanan Tobey (Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford) , Henri Ehrke (Center for Free Electron Laser Science) , Andrea Cavalleri (University of Oxford, Diamond Light Source) , Stefan Düsterer (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron) , Matthias Frank (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California) , Sasa Bajt (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California,) , Bruce Woods (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California) , Marvin Seibert (Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Uppsala University, Sweden) , Janos Hajdu (Biophysics, Uppsala University, Sweden) , Rolf Treusch (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron) , Henry N. Chapman (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Nature Photonics , VOL 2 (7) , PAGES 415-419

State: Published (Approved)
Published: June 2008

Abstract: The transient nanoscale dynamics of materials on femtosecond to picosecond timescales is of great interest in the study of condensed phase dynamics such as crack formation, phase separation and nucleation, and rapid fluctuations in the liquid state or in biologically relevant environments. The ability to take images in a single shot is the key to studying non-repetitive behaviour mechanisms, a capability that is of great importance in many of these problems. Using coherent diffraction imaging with femtosecond X-ray free-electron-laser pulses we capture time-series snapshots of a solid as it evolves on the ultrafast timescale. Artificial structures imprinted on a Si3N4 window are excited with an optical laser and undergo laser ablation, which is imaged with a spatial resolution of 50 nm and a temporal resolution of 10 ps. By using the shortest available free-electron-laser wavelengths1 and proven synchronization methods2 this technique could be extended to spatial resolutions of a few nanometres and temporal resolutions of a few tens of femtoseconds. This experiment opens the door to a new regime of time-resolved experiments in mesoscopic dynamics.

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