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Active site maturation and activity of the copper-radical oxidase GlxA is governed by a tryptophan residue

DOI: 10.1042/BCJ20160968 DOI Help

Authors: Amanda K. Chaplin (University of Essex) , Dimitri A. Svistunenko (University of Essex) , Michael Hough (University of Essex) , Michael T. Wilson (University of Essex) , Erik Vijgenboom (Leiden University) , Jonathan A. R. Worrall (University of Essex)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Biochemical Journal

State: Published (Approved)
Published: January 2017
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 7461

Abstract: GlxA from Streptomyces lividans is a mononuclear copper-radical oxidase and a member of the auxiliary activity family 5 (AA5). Its domain organisation and low sequence homology make it a distinct member of the AA5 family in which the fungal galactose 6-oxidase (Gox) is the best-characterized. GlxA is a key cuproenzyme in the copper-dependent morphological development of S. lividans with a function that is linked to the processing of an extracytoplasmic glycan. The catalytic site in GlxA and Gox contain two distinct one-electron acceptors comprising the copper ion and a 3'-(S-cysteinyl) tyrosine. The latter is formed post-translationally through a covalent bond between a cysteine and a copper coordinating tyrosine ligand and houses a radical. In GlxA and Gox a second coordination sphere tryptophan residue (Trp288 in GlxA) is present, but the orientation of the indole ring differs between the two enzymes creating a marked difference in the π-π stacking interaction of the benzyl ring with the 3'-(S-cysteinyl) tyrosine. Differences in the spectroscopic and enzymatic activity have been reported between GlxA and Gox with the indole orientation suggested as a reason. Here we report a series of in vivo and in vitro studies using the W288F and W288A variants of GlxA to assess the role of Trp288 on the morphology, maturation, spectroscopic and enzymatic properties. Our findings point towards a salient role for Trp288 in the kinetics of copper loading and maturation of GlxA, with its presence essential for stabilising the metalloradical site required for coupling catalytic activity and morphological development.

Journal Keywords: cuproenzyme; mononuclear copper-radical oxidase; streptomyces lividans; post-transalational modification; Cyc-Tyr cross link

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials, Chemistry

Instruments: I03-Macromolecular Crystallography

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