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Lignocellulose degradation mechanisms across the Tree of Life

DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.10.018 DOI Help

Authors: Simon M. Cragg (University of Portsmouth) , Gregg T Beckham (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) , Neil C Bruce (University of York) , Timothy D. H. Bugg (University of Warwick) , Daniel L. Distel (Northeastern University) , Paul Dupree (University of Cambridge) , Amaia Green Etxabe (University of Portsmouth) , Barry S. Goodell (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)) , Jody Jellison (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)) , John E. Mcgeehan (University of Portsmouth) , Simon J Mcqueen-Mason (University of York) , Kirk Schnorr (Novozymes AS) , Paul H. Walton (University of York) , Joy E. M. Watts , Martin Zimmer (Leibniz-Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT) GmbH)
Co-authored by industrial partner: Yes

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Current Opinion In Chemical Biology , VOL 29 , PAGES 108 - 119

State: Published (Approved)
Published: December 2015
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 12342

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: Organisms use diverse mechanisms involving multiple complementary enzymes, particularly glycoside hydrolases (GHs), to deconstruct lignocellulose. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) produced by bacteria and fungi facilitate deconstruction as does the Fenton chemistry of brown-rot fungi. Lignin depolymerisation is achieved by white-rot fungi and certain bacteria, using peroxidases and laccases. Meta-omics is now revealing the complexity of prokaryotic degradative activity in lignocellulose-rich environments. Protists from termite guts and some oomycetes produce multiple lignocellulolytic enzymes. Lignocellulose-consuming animals secrete some GHs, but most harbour a diverse enzyme-secreting gut microflora in a mutualism that is particularly complex in termites. Shipworms however, house GH-secreting and LPMO-secreting bacteria separate from the site of digestion and the isopod Limnoria relies on endogenous enzymes alone. The omics revolution is identifying many novel enzymes and paradigms for biomass deconstruction, but more emphasis on function is required, particularly for enzyme cocktails, in which LPMOs may play an important role.

Diamond Keywords: Enzymes

Subject Areas: Biology and Bio-materials, Chemistry

Instruments: I04-Macromolecular Crystallography

Added On: 24/03/2017 13:31

Discipline Tags:

Structural biology Life Sciences & Biotech

Technical Tags:

Diffraction Macromolecular Crystallography (MX)