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Reaction heterogeneity in LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 induced by surface layer

DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02236 DOI Help

Authors: Antonin Grenier (Advanced Photon Source) , Hao Liu (Advanced Photon Source) , Kamila M. Wiaderek (Advanced Photon Source) , Zachary W. Lebens-higgins (Binghamton University) , Olaf J. Borkiewicz (Advanced Photon Source) , Louis F. J. Piper (Binghamton University) , Peter J. Chupas (Advanced Photon Source) , Karena W. Chapman (Advanced Photon Source)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Chemistry Of Materials

State: Published (Approved)
Published: August 2017
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 12764 , 16005

Abstract: Through operando synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of layered transition metal oxide electrodes of composition LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA), we decouple the intrinsic bulk reaction mechanism from surface-induced effects. For identically prepared and cycled electrodes stored in different environments, we demonstrate that the intrinsic bulk reaction for pristine NCA follows solid-solution mechanism, not a two-phase as suggested previously. By combining high resolution powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrate that adventitious Li2CO3 forms on the electrode particle surface during exposure to air, through reaction with atmospheric CO2. This surface impedes ionic and electronic transport to the underlying electrode, with progressive erosion of this layer during cycling giving rise to different reaction states in particles with an intact vs an eroded Li2CO3 surface-coating. This reaction heterogeneity, with a bimodal distribution of reaction states, has previously been interpreted as a “two-phase” reaction mechanism for NCA, as an activation step that only occurs during the first cycle. Similar surface layers may impact the reaction mechanism observed in other electrode materials using bulk probes such as operando powder XRD.

Subject Areas: Chemistry, Materials


Instruments: I09-Surface and Interface Structural Analysis

Other Facilities: Advanced Photon Source