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Fourier transform imaging of impurities in the unit cells of crystals: Mn in GaAs

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.235207 DOI Help

Authors: T.-l. Lee (Diamond Light Source) , C. Bihler (Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München) , W. Schoch (Institut für Halbleiterphysik, Universität Ulm) , W. Limmer (Institut für Halbleiterphysik, Universität Ulm) , J. Daeubler (Institut für Halbleiterphysik, Universität Ulm) , S. Thiess (Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg) , M. S. Brandt (Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München) , J. Zegenhagen (ESRF)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Physical Review B , VOL 81 (23)

State: Published (Approved)
Published: January 2010

Abstract: The lattice sites of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As thin films were imaged using the x-ray standing wave technique. The model-free images, obtained straightforwardly by Fourier inversion, disclose immediately that the Mn mostly substitutes the Ga with a small fraction residing on minority sites. The images further reveal variations in the Mn concentrations of the different sites upon post-growth treatments. Subsequent model refinement based on the directly reconstructed images resolves with high precision the complete Mn site distributions. It is found that post-growth annealing increases the fraction of substitutional Mn at the expense of interstitial Mn whereas hydrogenation has little influence on the Mn site distribution. Our study offers an element-specific high-resolution imaging approach for accurately determining the detailed site distributions of dilute concentrations of atoms in crystals.

Subject Areas: Physics

Instruments: NONE-No attached Diamond beamline

Other Facilities: ESRF

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