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Self-Compensation in Transparent Conducting F-Doped SnO 2

DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701900 DOI Help

Authors: Jack E. N. Swallow (University of Liverpool) , Benjamin A. D. Williamson (University College London) , Thomas J. Whittles (University of Liverpool) , Max Birkett (University of Liverpool) , Thomas J. Featherstone (University of Liverpool) , Nianhua Peng (University of Surrey) , Alex Abbott (NSG Group) , Mark Farnworth (NSG Group) , Kieran J. Cheetham (NSG Group) , Paul Warren (NSG Group) , David O. Scanlon (University College London; Diamond Light Source) , Vin R. Dhanak (University of Liverpool) , Tim D. Veal (University of Liverpool)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Advanced Functional Materials , VOL 515

State: Published (Approved)
Published: November 2017

Open Access Open Access

Abstract: The factors limiting the conductivity of fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) produced via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition are investigated. Modeling of the transport properties indicates that the measured Hall effect mobilities are far below the theoretical ionized impurity scattering limit. Significant compensation of donors by acceptors is present with a compensation ratio of 0.5, indicating that for every two donors there is approximately one acceptor. Hybrid density functional theory calculations of defect and impurity formation energies indicate the most probable acceptor-type defects. The fluorine interstitial defect has the lowest formation energy in the degenerate regime of FTO. Fluorine interstitials act as singly charged acceptors at the high Fermi levels corresponding to degenerately n-type films. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of the fluorine impurities is consistent with the presence of substitutional FO donors and interstitial Fi in a roughly 2:1 ratio in agreement with the compensation ratio indicated by the transport modeling. Quantitative analysis through Hall effect, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and calibrated secondary ion mass spectrometry further supports the presence of compensating fluorine-related defects.

Journal Keywords: carrier transport; fluorine-doped stannic oxide; fluorine-doped tin dioxide; fluorine-doped tin oxide; self-compensation

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry


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Swallow_et_al-2017-Advanced_Functional_Materials.pdf