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Tolerance factor and cooperative tilting effects in vacancy-ordered double perovskite halides

DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b01549 DOI Help

Authors: Annalise E. Maughan (Colorado State University) , Alex M. Ganose (University College London; Diamond Light Source) , Mohammed A. Almaker (Colorado State University) , David O. Scanlon (University College London; Diamond Light Source) , James R. Neilson (Colorado State University)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Chemistry Of Materials

State: Published (Approved)
Published: May 2018

Abstract: Lattice dynamics and structural instabilities are strongly implicated in dictating the electronic properties of perovskite halide semiconductors. We present a study of the vacancy-ordered double perovskite Rb2SnI6 and correlate dynamic and cooperative octahedral tilting with changes in electronic behavior compared to those of Cs2SnI6. Though both compounds exhibit native n-type semiconductivity, Rb2SnI6 exhibits carrier mobilities that are reduced by a factor of ~50 relative to Cs2SnI6. From synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, we find that Rb2SnI6 adopts the tetragonal vacancy-ordered double perovskite structure at room temperature and undergoes a phase transition to a lower-symmetry monoclinic structure upon cooling, characterized by cooperative octahedral tilting of the [SnI6] octahedra. X-ray and neutron pair distribution function analyses reveal that the local coordination environment of Rb2SnI6 is consistent with the monoclinic structure at all temperatures; we attribute this observation to dynamic octahedral rotations that become frozen in to yield the low-temperature monoclinic structure. In contrast, Cs2SnI6 adopts the cubic vacancy-ordered double perovskite structure at all temperatures. Density functional calculations show that static octahedral tilting in Rb2SnI6 results in marginally increased carrier effective masses, which alone are insufficient to account for the experimental electronic behavior. Rather, the larger number of low-frequency phonons introduced by the lower symmetry of the Rb2SnI6 structure yield stronger electron--phonon coupling interactions that produce larger electron effective masses and reduced carrier mobilities relative to Cs2SnI6. Further, we discuss the results for Rb2SnI6 in the context of other vacancy-ordered double perovskite semiconductors, in order to demonstrate that the electron-phonon coupling characteristics can be predicted using the geometric perovskite tolerance factor. This study represents an important step in designing perovskite halide semiconductors with desired charge transport properties for optoelectronic applications.

Subject Areas: Materials, Chemistry

Facility: Advanced Photon Source

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