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Incorporation of Sb 5+ into CeO 2 : local structural distortion of the fluorite structure from a pentavalent substituent

DOI: 10.1039/C8DT01750F DOI Help

Authors: Craig I. Hiley (University of Warwick) , Janet M. Fisher (Johnson Matthey Technology Centre) , Reza J. Kashtiban (University of Warwick) , Giannantonio Cibin (Diamond Light Source) , David Thompsett (Johnson Matthey Technology Centre) , Richard I. Walton (University of Warwick)
Co-authored by industrial partner: Yes

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Dalton Transactions , VOL 56

State: Published (Approved)
Published: June 2018
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 5828 , 7253

Abstract: Hydrothermal crystallisation of CeO2 from aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 240 °C using CeCl3·7H2O in the presence of hydrogen peroxide with addition of either SbCl3 or SbCl5 yields polycrystalline samples of antimony-containing ceria directly from solution. Powder X-ray diffraction shows a contraction of the cubic lattice parameter with increasing Sb content, and also a broadening of Bragg peaks, from which Scherrer analysis yields crystallite domain sizes of 5–20 nm. Scanning transmission electron microscopy provides consistent results with observation of highly crystalline particles of a few nm in diameter. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy at the Ce LIII- and Sb K-edges reveals the presence of Ce4+ and Sb5+ in the solids. To balance charge the presence of co-included Na is proposed, corroborated by elemental analysis. The general chemical formula of the materials can thus be written as (Ce1−xSbx)1−yNayO2−δ (where x < 0.4 and y ≥ x/3). Sb K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the substituted ceria samples shows that the local structure of Sb resembles that in NaSbO3, where six-coordinate metal sites are found, but with evidence of a longer interatomic correlation due to surrounding Ce/Sb atoms in the fluorite structure; this implies that the Sb is displaced from the ideal eight-coordinate site of the fluorite structure. This structural distortion gives materials that are unstable under reducing conditions, coupled by the ease of reduction to elemental antimony, which is extruded leading to phase separation.

Subject Areas: Chemistry


Instruments: B18-Core EXAFS