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Interface instability in LiFePO4–Li3+xP1–xSixO4 all-solid-state batteries

DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b01746 DOI Help

Authors: Matthias F. Groh (University of Cambridge) , Matthew J. Sullivan (University of Cambridge) , Michael W. Gaultois (University of Cambridge) , Oliver Pecher (University of Cambridge) , Kent J. Griffith (University of Cambridge) , Clare P. Grey (University of Cambridge)
Co-authored by industrial partner: No

Type: Journal Paper
Journal: Chemistry Of Materials

State: Published (Approved)
Published: July 2018
Diamond Proposal Number(s): 15309 , 16387

Abstract: All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) based on non-combustible solid electrolytes are promising candidates for safe and high energy storage systems, but it remains a challenge to prepare systems with stable interfaces between the various solid components that survive both the synthesis conditions and electrochemical cycling. We have investigated cathode mixtures based on a carbon-coated LiFePO4 active material and Li3+xP1−xSixO4 solid electrolyte for potential use in all-solid-state batteries. Half-cells were constructed by combining both compounds into pellets by spark plasma sintering (SPS). We report the fast and quantitative formation of two solid solutions (LiFePO4−Fe2SiO4 and Li3PO4−Li2FeSiO4) for different compositions and ratios of the pristine compounds, as tracked by powder X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance; X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy confirms the formation of iron silicates similar to Fe2SiO4. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals diffusion of iron cations up to 40 µm into the solid electrolyte even in the short processing times accessible by SPS. Electrochemical cycling of the SPS treated cathode mixtures demonstrates a substantial decrease in capacity following the formation of the solid solutions during sintering. Consequently, all-solid-state batteries based on LiFePO4 and Li3+xP1−xSixO4 would necessitate iron ion blocking layers. More generally, this study highlights the importance of systematic studies on the fundamental reactions at the active material–solid electrolyte interfaces to enable the introduction of protective layers for commercially successful ASSBs.

Journal Keywords: Iron; Silicon; Solutions; Composites; Lithium iron phosphate

Diamond Keywords: Batteries; Solid-State Batteries (SSB)

Subject Areas: Chemistry, Materials

Instruments: B18-Core EXAFS , I11-High Resolution Powder Diffraction

Added On: 30/07/2018 10:55

Discipline Tags:

Physical Chemistry Energy Energy Storage Materials Science Energy Materials Chemistry

Technical Tags:

Diffraction Spectroscopy X-ray Powder Diffraction X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES)